Drill notes I
Drill notes II
Drill notes III
Drill notes IV
Drill notes V
Things every soldier, officer, non-com and
enlisted man, needs to know or refresh on -
position of the soldier, including facings
(that is, turning movements of the soldier).
I have taken this from the text of
Hardee’s 1862 (see, e.g.,
drillnet.net/1862/1862.htm). Hardee’s is
clear on these requirements therefore there
is no need for annotations by me but
portions unnecessary to an understanding are
deleted as shown by an ellipsis (….).
Hardee’s “RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY
TACTICS”: TITLE SECOND, SCHOOL OF THE
SOLDIER, PART FIRST
Position of the Soldier.
78. Heels on
the same line, as near each other as the
conformation of the man will permit;
The feet turned out equally, and forming
with each other something less than a right
The knees straight without
The body erect on the hips,
inclining a little forward;
shoulders square and falling equally;
The arms hanging naturally;
elbows near the body;
The palm of the
hand turned a little to the front, the
little finger behind the seam of the
The head erect and square
to the front, without constraint;
chin near the stock, without covering it;
The eyes fixed straight to the front,
and striking the ground about the distance
of fifteen paces.
instructor having given the recruit the
position of the soldier, without arms, will
now teach him the turning of the head and
eyes. He will command:
1. Eyes- RIGHT
81. At the word right, the
recruit will turn the head gently, so as to
bring the inner corner of the left eye in a
line with the buttons of the coat, the eyes
fixed on the line of the eyes of the men in,
or supposed to be in, the same rank.
82. At the second command the head will
resume the direct or habitual position.
83. The movement of Eyes - LEFT will be
executed by inverse means.
instructor will take particular care that
the movement of the head does not derange
the squareness of the shoulders, which will
happen if the movement of the former be too
85. When the instructor shall
wish the recruit to pass from the state of
attention to that of ease, he will command:
86. To cause a resumption
of the habitual position, the instructor
1. Attention. 2. SQUAD.
87. At the first word, the recruit will
fix his attention; at the second, he will
resume the prescribed position and
88. Facings to the right or
left will be executed in one time, or pause.
The instructor will command:
Squad. 2. Right (or left) - FACE.
At the second command, raise the right foot
slightly, turn on the left heel raising the
toes a little, and then replace the right
heel by the side of the left, and on the
90. The full face to the
rear (or front) will be executed in two
times, or pauses. The instructor will
1. Squad. 2. ABOUT - FACE.
91. (First time.) At the word about, the
recruit will turn on left heel, bring the
left toe to the front, carry the right foot
to the rear, the hollow opposite to, and
full three inches from, the left heel, the
feet square to each other.
(Second time.) At the word face, the recruit
will turn on both heels, raise the toes a
little, extend the hams, face to the rear,
bringing, at the same time, the right heel
by the side of the left.
instructor will take care that these motions
do not derange the position of the body.
Drill notes Volume IV
- Things every soldier, officer, non-com and
enlisted man, needs to know or refresh on -
The 9th has always had its
own way of forming up, but there is disagreement
as to how this might be done. See, e.g., article
2014, we inaugurated a new way of forming up
which was workable, and generally successful,
and we will form up in this fashion in future
I have taken this more or less
Here is how this goes:
1. Prior to
forming up, each man will now, when the command
is given to “Fall in,” fall in according to
height, in one rank, tallest as always to the
right, corporals included, First Sgt. to the far
2. Then, the command will be given
to, “Count two’s,” and the men will then number
1, 2, 1, 2, and so on, as before. This numbering
will be temporary, as will be seen shortly.
3. Then, on the command, “In two ranks, form
company. Left face,” the no. 1 men will move up
and to the left of the no. 2 men on their left
(as on a typical left fact). At this point, we
have “doubled up,” with the taller man behind
the shorter man, where we need them. Of course,
each man can now “forget” his number as there
will be a renumbering upon the company facing to
the front, immediately below.
4. Then, on
the command, “In rank, Front,” each man, facing
to the left, will then turn to the right and
face to the front. This is not a typical “Front”
in which the no. 1 men would return to their
5. Then, to align on the
file furthest to the right, the command will be
given to “Dress, right,” to accomplish this.
6. At this point, the command will again be,
“In each rank, count two’s,” to ensure that we
have numbered properly (this effectively means
that some former ones will become twos, and
7. In addition, on the
command, “Front,” any corporals who ended up in
the rear rank will trade places with the man in
front of them so as take their place in the
front rank, and I will make any adjustments in
their position as necessary.
and I think that this will ensure that the
process of forming up is done swiftly and
Drill notes Vol. III - Things every soldier, officer, non-com, and enlisted man, needs to know or refresh on - commands.
I have taken this from the text of Hardee’s (see, e.g.,drillnet.net/1862/1862.htm) with some annotations by me given the reality of reenacting practice - these are noted by asterisks (**). I have also deleted those portions of the manual which are not actively used by the 9th or the Battalion - these are noted by ellipses (...).
Hardee’s “RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY TACTICS”: TITLE SECOND, SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER, PART 1
Title First, Article
There are three kinds.
62. The command of caution, which is attention. **
** This tells the soldier to, “get ready.” For example, “Attention, company.” This is sometimes shortened in reenacting practice to “Company, ….”
63. The preparatory command, which indicates the movement which is to be executed. **
** This tells the soldier “what is coming” and gives you a chance to get ready. Several examples (the preparatory command is that which is italicized) are the following:
“In place, rest.”
“By company into line, march.”
“Right wheel, march.”
64. The command of execution, such as march or halt, [or face] or, in the manual of arms, the part of command which causes an execution [i.e. arms].
** This tells the soldier “what to do.” Several examples (the command of execution is that which is italicized):
“In place, rest.”
“By company into line, march.”
“Right wheel, march.”
One command of execution, given without a preparatory command is, “Front” - as for example, the company has done a right or left face and needs to be faced to the front again.
Crisp execution of commands by the rank and file dictates that - as is often said - the soldier not anticipate, that the soldier make no movement upon the giving of the preparatory command but that he await the soon-to-follow command of execution.
65. The tone of the command should be animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men under instruction.
66. The command attention is pronounced at the top of the voice, dwelling on the last syllable. **
** Thus, “Atten-SHUN!”
67. The command of execution will be pronounced in a tone firm and brief.
Drill notes Volume II
- Things every soldier,
officer, non-com and enlisted man, needs to know
or refresh on - saluting.
I have taken this from the text of Kautz’s 1864
Customs of Service, see, e.g., 64thill.org/drillmanuals/kautzs_customsofservice/enlisted/
(downloadable copy if you scroll to the bottom),
in default of better direction, including from
Hardee’s, for some of the flotsam and jetsam of
soldiers’ life in the military.
These comments on saluting are well-stated by
Kautz and require little elaboration (that in
italics is emphasis added by me, and the
asterisks indicate my comments):
** from an online dictionary: “the way that a
[soldier] behaves, stands, and moves especially
in a formal situation”
47. One of the first things a soldier has to
learn on entering the army, is a proper military
deportment towards his superiors in rank: this
is nothing more than the military way of
performing the courtesies required from a
well-bred man in civil life, and a punctual
performance of them is as much to his credit as
the observance of the ordinary rules of common
48. “Sergeants, with swords drawn, will salute
by bringing them to a present; with muskets, by
bringing the left hand across the body, so as to
strike the musket near the right shoulder.
Corporals out of the ranks, and privates not
sentries, will carry their muskets at a shoulder
as sergeants, and salute in like manner.” (Reg.
49. “When a soldier without arms, or with side
arms only, meets an officer, he is to raise his
hand to the right side of the visor of his cap,
palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the
shoulder, looking at the same time in a
respectful and soldier-like manner at the
officer, who will return the compliment thus
offered.” (Reg. 256.) **
** The palm open salute is to he distinguished
from the oft-used flat palm salute.
But non-coms - sergeants, corporals - are not to
be saluted by enlisted men.
50. “A non-commissioned officer or soldier being
seated, and without particular occupation, will
rise on the approach of an officer, and make the
customary salutation. If standing, he will turn
toward the officer for the same purpose. If the
parties remain in the same place or on the same
ground, such compliments need not be repeated.”
(Reg. 257.) **
** Hence, the oft-heard exclamation in the 9th’s
camp of, “officer in camp.”
51. The foregoing regulations should be strictly
observed by enlisted men; and their faithful
performance will add much to the military
reputation of a company or regiment.
52. The following customs are equally binding,
though not provided for in Regulations:
When soldiers are marching in the ranks, they do
not salute, unless ordered at the time. If
employed at any work, they are not expected to
discontinue their employment to salute.
53. A soldier or non-commissioned officer, when
he addresses an officer, or is spoken to by one,
salutes; on receiving the answer or
communication from the officer, he again salutes
before turning to go away.
54. When a soldier enters an officer’s quarters
armed, he simply makes the required salute, and
does not take off his cap; but without arms, or
with side-arms only, he takes off his cap and
stands in the position of a soldier, and
delivers his message or communicates what he
came for in as few words as possible and to the
55. A slovenly attitude, frequent changes of
position, or much gesticulation, is exceedingly
unmilitary, and looks bad. Say what you have to
say in a prompt, courageous manner, without
diffidence or hesitation; and, if always
respectful, no matter what the subject, it is
more likely to be considered than when delivered
in a drawling hesitating, and timid manner.
56. A mounted soldier should always dismount if
the officer he wishes to address is dismounted.
A mounted soldier passing an officer salutes
with the hand, except when he has his sabre
drawn, and then he salutes with the sabre.
57. When a soldier enters an officer’s quarters,
he remains standing in the position of a soldier
until invited to sit down. When soldiers are in
a room and an officer enters, they should rise
and remain standing until invited to sit
Things every soldier, non-com and enlisted man,
needs to know or refresh on, as basic drill is
the Formation of a Regiment in order of battle,
or in line.
I have taken this from the text of Hardee’s
(see, e.g., http://drillnet.net/1862/1862.htm)
with some annotations by me given the reality of
reenacting practice - these are noted by
asterisks (**). I have also deleted those
portions of the manual which are not actively
used by the 9th or the Battalion - these are
noted by ellipses (...).
Hardee’s “RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY TACTICS”:
TITLE FIRST, ARTICLE FIRST
Formation of a Regiment in order of battle, or
1. A regiment is composed of ten companies,
which will habitually be posted from right to
left, in the following order: first, sixth,
fourth, ninth, third, eighth, fifth, tenth,
seventh, second, according to the rank of
** The 9th Texas was a regiment during the war
and is so named today. We have never taken on a
company designation, as have other companies in
the Battalion, e.g., Company E, 4th Missouri.
Typically, a Civil War regiment was 10 companies
of 100 men each. The lettering was from A to I,
then K, L (there was no J as it apparently
looked too much like I). As the War progressed,
however, the regimental strength fell to 300 to
400 effectives due to lack or replacement,
disease, casualties, and the like.
“Company Aytch: Or a Side Show of the Big Show”
was written about Company H of the 1st Tennessee
of Sam Watkins.
Company command was by the captain, with the
following non-coms: 1st Lt. (1); 2nd Lt. (1);
Sgt. (1); 2nd Sgt. (4); Corporals (8). Clearly,
due to differences in the number of men put in
the field, these numbers have been adjusted for
the present day 9th.
3. The companies thus posted will be designated
from right to left, first company, second
company, &c. This designation will be observed
in the manœuvres. **
** Thus is set the line of battle at events by
Col. Amend, or whoever is in command.
5. Each company will be divided into two equal
parts, which will, be designated as the first
and second platoon, counting from the right -
and each platoon, in like manner, will be
subdivided into two sections.
6. In all exercises and manœuvres, every
regiment, or part of a regiment, composed of two
or more companies, will be designated as a
7. The color, with a guard to be hereinafter
designated, will be posted on the left of the
right center-battalion company. That company,
and all on its right, will be denominated the
right wing of the battalion; the remaining
companies the left wing.**
** Thus, the placement of Battalion Color Sgt.
Bell and his guard.
8. The formation of a regiment is in two ranks;
and each company will be formed into two ranks,
in the following manner: the corporals will be
posted in the front rank, and on the right and
left of platoons, according to height; the
tallest corporal and the tallest main will form
the first file, the next two tallest men will
form the second file, and so on to the last
file, which will be company of the shortest
corporal and the shortest man. **
** Hence, front rank and rear rank. Although
Hardee’s is here short on detail as to how
precisely to get there, this is the process of
forming the company with tallest men to the
right, and shortest to the left. Of course,
there is disagreement concerning the proper
method to do it. See, e.g., the discussion at
9. The odd and even files, numbered as one, two,
in the company, from right, to left, will form
groups of four men, who will be designated
comrades in battle. **
** Keeping track of who your comrades in battle
are is helpful to getting back into line after a
rest or battle or other matter in which you have
stepped away from your proper place in line.
10. The distance from one rank to another will
be thirteen inches, measured from the breasts of
the rear rank men to the backs or knapsacks of
the front rank men.
As non-coms and the rank and file comment on
this first drill lesson, I will post those
annotations here, and I encourage all who care
to comment to do so.
9th Texas Regiment of Infantry
This is how a proper tent should be
Your obedient servant,
9th Texas Reg’t of Infantry
1st Mo. Battalion